Power system

In 2018, electricity consumption in Finland amounted to 87.4 (85.5) terawatt hours. Fingrid transmitted a total of 68.6 (66.2) terawatt hours of electricity in its grid, representing 75.5 (75.5) per cent of the total transmission volume in Finland (consumption and inter-TSO).

The electricity import and production capacity was sufficient to cover the peak consumption during the year. Electricity consumption peaked at 14,062 (14,300) megawatts on 28 February 2018. During that peak consumption hour, Finland generated 10,600 megawatts of electricity, and the remaining 3,460 megawatts was imported from neighbouring countries. 

Draught was the hallmark of the summer of 2018, and the lack of water reservoirs increased the price of electricity in the Nordic countries. One of the impacts of the high Nordic prices was increased transmission of electricity from Russia to Finland. Electricity transmissions between Finland and Sweden mostly consisted of large imports to Finland. In 2018, 14.5 (15.6) terawatt hours of electricity was imported from Sweden to Finland, and 1.0 (0.4) terawatt hours was exported from Finland to Sweden. The bulk of electricity transmission between Finland and Estonia was from Estonia to Finland during the spring and the autumn. During other times, the dominant direction was from Finland to Estonia, totalling  2.4 (1.7) terawatt hours. Imports from Estonia amounted to 0.9 (0.9) terawatt hours. The electricity imports from Russia increased compared with the previous year, but the intraday variations were large. Imports from Russia was 7.9 (5.8) terawatt hours. In 2018, 0.2 (0.3) terawatt hours of electricity was imported from Norway to Finland, and 0.1 (0.0) terawatt hours was exported from Finland to Norway. Nearly the full transmission capacity was available in all cross-border connections during the review period.

The transmission reliability rate overall remained at an excellent level and was 99.9999 (99.9997) per cent of the transmitted energy volume. An outage in a connection point in the grid caused by a disturbance in Fingrid’s electricity network lasted an average of 12.0 (2.2) minutes, which exceeds the ten-year average. The computational cost of the disturbances (regulatory outage costs) to consumer customers was only EUR 1.5 (2.8) million. If quick reconnections are included, the cost of disturbances amounts to EUR 3.6 million, the lowest value in ten years. 

The most significant event that contributed to the increased outages in connection points was a fire at Fingrid’s Olkiluoto substation on 18 July 2018, which resulted in damage to a 400-kilovolt current transformer. Due to the fire and resulting repairs at the substation, Olkiluoto nuclear power plant units 1 and 2 were not able to supply the grid with electricity. Fingrid issued a warning on 19 July 2018 that domestic production and imports of electricity may possibly be insufficient to meet consumption. The electricity shortage was avoided, however.

The reliability and usability of DC connections were at an excellent level in 2018. The number of disturbances and the total duration of disturbances exceeded the 2017 levels, however. Except for the single most serious disturbance during 2018, the connections were restored very quickly after disturbances. Thus the countertrade costs for DC connections in 2018 were only around EUR 140,000, close to the exceptionally good level of 2017. The most serious disturbance occurred in the EstLink 1 connection in November and took 23 days to repair. 

The volume of transmission losses in the grid remained at the level of the previous year, 1.2 (1.2) terawatt hours. This is 1.3 (1.4) per cent of the total volume of transmitted electricity. The annual variation of losses is affected by the Nordic electricity production situation, such as the sufficiency of hydropower. Losses have been minimised by keeping the voltage of the transmission grid as high as possible and by making grid investments and equipment procurements that promote energy efficiency.

Counter trade Jan-Dec/18 Jan-Dec/17 July-Dec/18 July-Dec/17
Counter-trade between Finland and Sweden, €M 1.9 0.4 1.8 0.1
Counter-trade between Finland and Estonia, €M 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
Counter-trade between Finland's internal connections, €M 2.2 1.3 2.1 0.0
Total counter-trade, €M 4.1 1.8 3.9 0.1

Reserves required to maintain the power balance of the electricity system were procured from Finland, the other Nordic countries, the Baltic countries and Russia. Countertrade costs totalled EUR 4.1 (1.8) million. Contributors to the increased countertrade costs included the fire at Fingrid’s Olkiluoto substation and the dis-ruptions in the Petäjäskoski–Letsi transmission line. Countertrade refers to special adjustments made in the management of electricity transmission which are used to eliminate short-term bottle-necks (congestion in electricity transmission caused by the transmission grid). Fingrid guarantees the cross-border transmission capacities between countries it has confirmed by carrying out coun-tertrades, i.e. purchasing and selling electricity, up until the end of the 24-hour usage period. The need for countertrade can arise from, for example, a power outage or disruption in a power plant or in the grid.

Power system operation Jan-Dec/18 Jan-Dec/17 July-Dec/18 July-Dec/17
Electricity consumption in Finland TWh 87.4 85.5 42.2 41.8
TSO transmission in Finland, TWh 3.5 2.1 2.0 1.3
Transmission within Finland, TWh 90.9 87.6 44.1 43.1
Fingrid's transmission volume TWh 68.6 66.2 33.9 33.4
Fingrid's electricity transmission to customers, TWh 64.9 63.9 31.8 32.0
Fingrid's loss energy volume TWh 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.6
Electricity transmission Finland - Sweden        
Exports to Sweden TWh 1.0 0.4 0.5 0.3
Imports from Sweden TWh 14.5 15.6 7.0 8.1
Electricity transmission Finland - Estonia        
Exports to Estonia TWh 2.4 1.7 1.4 1.1
Imports from Estonia TWh 0.9 0.9 0.3 0.3
Exports to Norway TWh        
Imports from Norway TWh 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Imports from Norway TWh 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2
Electricity transmission Finland - Russia        
Imports from Russia TWh 7.9 5.8 4.4 2.8